RuntimeError: __iter__() is only supported inside of tf.function or when eager execution is enabled

I am trying to run a pre-processing script in tensorflow latest container image
docker_image = tensorflow/tensorflow:2.7.0-gpu

Below is the script and error logs

import argparse
import io
import os
import subprocess

import ray
import tensorflow.compat.v1 as tf
from PIL import Image
from psutil import cpu_count

from utils import *
from object_detection.utils import dataset_util, label_map_util

label_map = label_map_util.load_labelmap(’./label_map.pbtxt’)
label_map_dict = label_map_util.get_label_map_dict(label_map)
t2idict = {y:x for x,y in label_map_dict.items()}
def class_text_to_int(text):
return t2idict[text]

def create_tf_example(filename, encoded_jpeg, annotations):
This function create a tf.train.Example from the Waymo frame.
- filename [str]: name of the image
- encoded_jpeg [bytes]: jpeg encoded image
- annotations [protobuf object]: bboxes and classes
- tf_example [tf.Train.Example]: tf example in the objection detection api format.

# TODO: Implement function to convert the data
encoded_jpg_io = io.BytesIO(encoded_jpeg)
image =
width, height = image.size

image_format = b'jpeg'

xmins = []
xmaxs = []
ymins = []
ymaxs = []
classes_text = []
classes = []

for index, row in enumerate(annotations):
    xmin = -
    xmax = +
    ymin = -
    ymax = +
    xmins.append(xmin / width)
    xmaxs.append(xmax / width)
    ymins.append(ymin / height)
    ymaxs.append(ymax / height)

filename = filename.encode('utf8')
tf_example = tf.train.Example(features=tf.train.Features(feature={
    'image/height': int64_feature(height),
    'image/width': int64_feature(width),
    'image/filename': bytes_feature(filename),
    'image/source_id': bytes_feature(filename),
    'image/encoded': bytes_feature(encoded_jpeg),
    'image/format': bytes_feature(image_format),
    'image/object/bbox/xmin': float_list_feature(xmins),
    'image/object/bbox/xmax': float_list_feature(xmaxs),
    'image/object/bbox/ymin': float_list_feature(ymins),
    'image/object/bbox/ymax': float_list_feature(ymaxs),
    'image/object/class/text': bytes_list_feature(classes_text),
    'image/object/class/label': int64_list_feature(classes),
return tf_example

def download_tfr(filepath, temp_dir):
download a single tf record
- filepath [str]: path to the tf record file
- temp_dir [str]: path to the directory where the raw data will be saved
- local_path [str]: path where the file is saved
# create data dir
dest = os.path.join(temp_dir, ‘raw’)
os.makedirs(dest, exist_ok=True)
filename = os.path.basename(filepath)
local_path = os.path.join(dest, filename)
if os.path.exists(local_path):
return local_path
print(“start downloading {}”.format(local_path))
# download the tf record file
cmd = [‘gsutil’, ‘cp’, filepath, f’{dest}’]’Downloading {filepath}’)
res =, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
if res.returncode != 0:
logger.error(f’Could not download file {filepath}’)

print("complete downloading {}".format(local_path))
return local_path

def process_tfr(filepath, data_dir):
process a Waymo tf record into a tf api tf record
- filepath [str]: path to the Waymo tf record file
- data_dir [str]: path to the destination directory
# create processed data dir
dest = os.path.join(data_dir, ‘processed’)
os.makedirs(dest, exist_ok=True)
file_name = os.path.basename(filepath)

if os.path.exists(f'{dest}/{file_name}'):
    return'Processing {filepath}')
writer = tf.python_io.TFRecordWriter(f'{dest}/{file_name}')
dataset =, compression_type='')
for idx, data in enumerate(dataset):
    frame = open_dataset.Frame()
    encoded_jpeg, annotations = parse_frame(frame)
    filename = file_name.replace('.tfrecord', f'_{idx}.tfrecord')
    tf_example = create_tf_example(filename, encoded_jpeg, annotations)

def download_and_process(filename, temp_dir, data_dir):
# need to re-import the logger because of multiprocesing
dest = os.path.join(data_dir, ‘processed’)
os.makedirs(dest, exist_ok=True)
file_name = os.path.basename(filename)

if os.path.exists(f'{dest}/{file_name}'):
    print("processed file  {} exists, skip".format(file_name))
logger = get_module_logger(__name__)
local_path = download_tfr(filename, temp_dir)
process_tfr(local_path, data_dir)
# remove the original tf record to save space
if os.path.exists(local_path):'Deleting {local_path}')

if name == “main”:
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description=‘Download and process tf files’)
parser.add_argument(’–data_dir’, required=False, default="./data",
help=‘processed data directory’)
parser.add_argument(’–temp_dir’, required=False, default="./data/temp",
help=‘raw data directory’)
args = parser.parse_args()
logger = get_module_logger(name)
# open the filenames file
with open(‘filenames.txt’, ‘r’) as f:
filenames =’Download {len(filenames)} files. Be patient, this will take a long time.’)

data_dir = args.data_dir
temp_dir = args.temp_dir

download_and_process(filenames[0], temp_dir, data_dir)

# init ray

workers = [download_and_process.remote(fn, temp_dir, data_dir) for fn in filenames[:100]]
_ = ray.get(workers)
print("Done with downloading")


Traceback (most recent call last):
File “”, line 204, in
_ = ray.get(workers)
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.8/dist-packages/ray/”, line 1538, in get
raise value.as_instanceof_cause()
ray.exceptions.RayTaskError(RuntimeError): ray::main.download_and_process() (pid=250, ip=
File “python/ray/_raylet.pyx”, line 479, in ray._raylet.execute_task
File “”, line 176, in download_and_process
process_tfr(local_path, data_dir)
File “”, line 137, in process_tfr
iterator = iter(dataset)
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.8/dist-packages/tensorflow/python/data/ops/”, line 3445, in iter
return iter(self._dataset)
File “/usr/local/lib/python3.8/dist-packages/tensorflow/python/data/ops/”, line 413, in iter
raise RuntimeError("iter() is only supported inside of tf.function "
RuntimeError: iter() is only supported inside of tf.function or when eager execution is enabled.